Listed below are some resources that have helped shape the direction of this research. This is a multidisciplinary selection from academics and experts in design, human geography, sociology, cultural studies and history. It is by no means a comprehensive list, but it may be useful for those looking for material related to the intersections of labour, Australian manufacturing, craft, maker practices, design and gender. Since writing this list, I have been made aware of many other relevant publications and texts – so the list is by no means a complete selection!




There is very little academic material written on the craft/trade of engineering patternmaking. In our research we have resorted to reading trade manuals and industry literature written in the first half of the twentieth century. Interestingly, engineering patternmakers still find these technical manuals of use, even today.

  • Cast Metals (1977) 2nd edn, Metalfounding and Patternmaking Departments, George Thompson School of Foundry Technology, RMIT, Melbourne.
  • Brown, J. K. (2000) ‘Design plans, working drawings, national styles: Engineering practice in Great Britain and the United States‘, 1775-1945. Technology and Culture, 41(2), 195–238.
  • Horner, J.G. (1902) Pattern Making: A practical treatise embracing the main types of engineering construction, 3rd edn, Crosby Lockwood and Son, London.
  • Mosses, W. (1922) A History of the United Pattern Makers’ Association 1872-1922. London: United Pattern Makers’ Association.
  • Needham, G. R., & Thomson, D. I. (1998) Men of Metal: A chronicle of the metal casting industry in South Australia 1836-1998 (2nd edn). Adelaide: South Australian Centre for Manufacturing / EEASA Foundry Council / Australian Foundry Institute.
  • Roxburgh, W. (1910) General Foundry Practice, D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.
  • Scarlett, S.F. 2011, ‘The craft of industrial patternmaking‘, Journal of Modern Craft, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 27–48.
  • Shelly, J.A. (1920) Patternmaking. New York: The Industrial Press.
  • Thompson, G.D. (1942) ‘Pattern Making and the Foundry as Related to Manufacturing Processes’, Proceedings of the Victorian Institute of Engineers, Victorian Institute of Engineers, Melbourne.
  • Wlodawer, R. (1966) Directional Solidification of Steel Castings, English ed., Oxford, London and New York: Pergamon Press.


Australian Centre for Cultural Environmental Research (ACCER)

This project is indebted to the fantastic work being done at ACCER, the University of Wollongong by Prof Chris Gibson, Dr Andrew Warren, Chantel Carr, and Dr Thomas Birtchnell (among others). From the perspective of human and economic geography, this work examines key issues surrounding Australian manufacturing, sustainability, labour, craft, cultural economies and to some extent gender. Below is a selection of their work.


CRAFT SKILL & MAKER PRACTICES (mixed disciplines)





  • Callan, V.J. & Bowman, K. (2015) Industry restructuring and job loss: Helping older workers get back into employment. Canberra: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
  • Knight, B. (2012) Evolution of apprenticeships and traineeships in Australia: An unfinished history. Adelaide: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
  • Lewis, P. & Corliss, M. (2010) Where tradies work: A regional analysis of the labour market for tradespeople. Canberra: National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program.
  • O’Reilly-Briggs, K. (2010) The master artisan: a framework for master tradespeople in Australia. Canberra: National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program.
  • Patchett, M. (2017) ‘Historical geographies of apprenticeship: rethinking and retracing craft conveyance over time and place’, Journal of Historical Geography, vol. 55, pp. 30–43.
  • Patchett, M. (2016) ‘The taxidermist’s apprentice: stitching together the past and present of a craft practice’, Cultural Geographies, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 401–419.
  • Productivity Commission (2017) ‘Supporting Paper 8: Upskilling and Retraining‘, in Shifting the Dial: 5 year Productivity Review, Canberra: Commonwealth Government Australia.
  • Shields, J. (1995) ‘A matter of skill: the rise of compulsory apprenticeship in early twentieth century New South Wales’’, Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 236–262.
  • Shields, J. (1995) ‘Deskilling revisited: Continuity and change in craft work and apprenticeship in late nineteenth century New South Wales’, Labour History, vol. 68, no. May, pp. 1–29.
  • Shields, J. (1992) ‘Craftsmen in the making: The memory and meaning of apprenticeship in Sydney between the Great War and the Great Depression’, in J. Shields (ed.), All our labours : Oral histories of working life in twentieth century Sydney, Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, pp. 86–122.


(Obviously this could be much much longer, this is a very abbreviated list)

  • Baron, A. (1989) ‘Questions of gender: Deskilling and demascilinisation in the US printing industry 1830-1915’, Gender & History, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 178–199.
  • Braverman, H. (1977) Labor and monopoly capital: The degradation of work in the twentieth century. New York: Monthly Review Press.

  • Burawoy, M. (2013) ‘Ethnographic fallacies: reflections on labour studies in the era of market fundamentalism’, Work, Employment & Society, vol. 27, pp. 526–536.
  • Cockburn, C. (1983) Brothers: Male dominance and technological change, London: Pluto Press.
  • Cockburn, C. (1985) Machinery of dominance: Women, men and technical know-how, London: Pluto Press.
  • Edgerton, D. (2006) The shock of the old: Technology & Global History since 1900: Technology in global history since 1900, London: Profile Books.
  • Honneth, A. (1995) The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts, (trans. Joel Anderson), MIT Press / Polity Press, Cambridge Mass.
  • Kessler-Harris, A. (1993) ‘Treating the male as “other”: Redefining the parameters of labor history’, Labor History, vol. 34, no. 2/3, pp. 190–204.
  • MacKenzie, D. & Wajcman, J. (1999) ‘Technological determinism and production’, in D. MacKenzie & J. Wajcman (eds), The social shaping of technology, Open University Press, Maidenhead and Philadelphia, pp. 141–150.
  • Noble, D.F. (1978) ‘Social Choice in Machine Design: The Case of Automatically Controlled Machine Tools, and a Challenge for Labor’, Politics & Society, vol. 8, no. 3–4, pp. 313–347,
  • Noble, D.F. (1984) Forces of production: A social history of industrial automation, Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
  • Sennett, R. (1998) The corrosion of character: The personal consequences of work in the new capitalism, W.W. Norton & Company, New York & London.
  • Winner, L. (1977) Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought, MIT Press, Cambridge Mass.






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